Pyoderma Gangrenosum Secondary to Severe Congenital Neutropenia

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Summary:We encountered a case of a man who was diagnosed with severe congenital neutropenia as a child and presented at the age of 45 years with pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) of the lower leg. PG associates with an underlying systemic disease, most commonly inflammatory bowel, rheumatic, or hematological disease or malignancy. However, in many cases, the underlying disease was not known. Surgery can trigger PG. The histopathological features of PG were nonspecific, and diagnosis requires excluding other conditions that have a similar appearance. Our analyses showed that the PG in our case was secondary to severe congenital neutropenia, which had promoted an infection of keratinous cysts. The patient bore a mutation in the ELANE gene encoding neutrophil elastase. Only 1 other case of neutropenia-associated PG has been reported previously: the association was only suspected. The present complex case was effectively treated by systemic treatment of the neutropenia with granulocyte colony–stimulating factor and regional surgical treatment. Histology of the excised tissue revealed keratinous cysts that were diffusely distributed with inflammatory granulation tissue. We believe that the rupture of the walls of the keratinous cysts may have caused the PG. At the time of writing (3 years since the initial presentation), the PG has not recurred. This case shows the importance of performing detailed examinations, including blood tests, to determine the disease underlying PG. This was because if the underlying disease was identified, its treatment was likely to promote healing of the wound after local surgery and prevent recurrence.

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