Primary Repair of a Complex Panfacial Fracture by Dog Bite

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Abstract

Summary:

Facial fractures due to dog attacks have an unknown incidence rate. To date, only 41 cases of canine bite trauma in a pediatric patient, associated with facial fracture, have been reported in the literature. As major species of involving dogs are the American pitbull terrier and rottweiler. Due to the intense kinematics of this trauma, the treatment becomes complex. Thus, attention to the primary repair of such complex lesions ensures satisfactory results, which is the focus of this discussion. The purpose of this review was to analyze how different ways to approach this type of trauma in children for clarification or correct management. In addition, we address the treatment plan of a complex case of panfacial fracture by a canine bite in a 4-year-old patient. According to a review addressed, the main involved are orbit, nasal, and zygomatic. Antibiotic therapy is indicated for infected bite wounds and wounded considerations at risk of infection, with high complexity and when involving important structures such as bones, vessels, and joints. The state of tetanus immunization and the risk of rabies infection should be routinely addressed in the management of the bite wound.

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