Three-Dimensional Topographic Surface Changes in Response to Compartmental Volumization of the Medial Cheek: Defining a Malar Augmentation Zone

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Abstract

Background:

Given the widespread use of facial fillers and recent identification of distinct facial fat compartments, a better understanding of three-dimensional surface changes in response to volume augmentation is needed. Advances in three-dimensional imaging technology now afford an opportunity to elucidate these morphologic changes for the first time.

Methods:

A cadaver study was undertaken in which volumization of the deep medial cheek compartment was performed at intervals up to 4 cc (n = 4). Three-dimensional photographs were taken after each injection to analyze the topographic surface changes, which the authors define as the “augmentation zone.” Perimeter, diameter, and projection were studied. The arcus marginalis of the inferior orbit consistently represented a fixed boundary of the augmentation zone, and additional cadavers underwent similar volumization following surgical release of this portion of the arcus marginalis (n = 4). Repeated three-dimensional computer analysis was performed comparing the augmentation zone with and without arcus marginalis release.

Results:

Volumization of the deep medial cheek led to unique topographic changes of the malar region defined by distinct boundaries. Interestingly, the cephalic border of the augmentation zone was consistently noted to be at the level of the arcus marginalis in all specimens. When surgical release of the arcus marginalis was performed, the cephalic border of the augmentation zone was no longer restricted.

Conclusions:

Using advances in three-dimensional photography and computer analysis, the authors demonstrate characteristic surface anatomy changes in response to volume augmentation of facial compartments. This novel concept of the augmentation zone can be applied to volumization of other distinct facial regions.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Therapeutic, V.

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