A Review of Cellular and Acellular Matrix Products: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

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Abstract

Background:

Wound healing is a dynamic process whereby cells, growth factors (GFs), and the extracellular matrix (ECM) interact to restore the architecture of damaged tissue. Chronic wounds can be difficult to treat due to the increased presence of inflammatory cells that degrade the ECM, GF, and cells necessary for wound healing to occur. Cellular and acellular matrix products can be used in the management of a variety of chronic wounds including venous, diabetic, and pressure ulcers and other conditions such as burns, epidermolysis bullosa, pyoderma gangrenosum, and surgical wounds. These matrices provide cells, GF, and other key elements that act as a scaffold and promote reepithelialization and revascularization of the wound bed.

Methods:

This article focuses on cellular and acellular matrix products that have been well-studied clinically with positive results in randomized clinical trials and widely available matrices for chronic nonhealing wounds. We present trial results as well as their indications, techniques, and outcomes.

Results:

There are a variety of matrix products available on the market. Some of these products are used to treat chronic wounds, for example, diabetic foot ulcers, venous leg ulcers, pyoderma gangrenosum, and pressure ulcers. In this review, we found that wounds of different etiologies have been treated with a variety of matrices, with successful outcomes compared with standard wound care.

Conclusions:

Both cellular and acellular matrix products are useful in the management of a variety of chronic wounds. These matrices provide cells, GF, and other key elements that promote reepithelialization and revascularization of the wound bed while preventing degradation of the ECM. The treatment of chronic wounds with matrix products in combination with standard wound care has been proven to aid in wound healing when added to standard of care.

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