Inadequate Enoxaparin Dosing Predicts 90-Day Venous Thromboembolism Risk among Plastic Surgery Inpatients: An Examination of Enoxaparin Pharmacodynamics

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

Background:

Evidence-based plastic surgery guidelines support the effectiveness of once-daily enoxaparin prophylaxis. Despite prophylaxis, one in 25 highest risk patients has a venous thromboembolism event. The authors examined the pharmacodynamics of standard enoxaparin doses in plastic surgery patients to examine whether patient-level factors predict enoxaparin metabolism, whether inadequate enoxaparin dose predicts downstream venous thromboembolism events, and whether a pharmacist-driven dose-adjustment protocol was effective.

Methods:

The authors recruited adult plastic surgery patients who received postoperative enoxaparin at 40 mg/day. Steady-state peak anti–factor Xa levels, a marker of enoxaparin effectiveness and safety, were determined. Patients with out-of-range anti–factor Xa levels had real-time dose adjustment based on a written protocol. Patients were followed for 90-day venous thromboembolism events.

Results:

Ninety-four patients were recruited, and 44 percent had in-range peak anti–factor Xa levels in response to standard enoxaparin dosing. Patient-level factors including extent of surgical injury and gross weight were independent predictors of enoxaparin metabolism. Patients with low anti–factor Xa levels were significantly more likely to have 90-day venous thromboembolism (10.2 percent versus 0 percent; p = 0.041). Real-time dose adjustment allowed a significantly increased proportion of patients to have in-range levels (67.1 percent versus 44.3 percent; p = 0.002).

Conclusions:

Based on pharmacodynamic data, the majority of plastic surgery patients receive inadequate enoxaparin prophylaxis using fixed dosing. Patient-level factors can predict how patients will metabolize enoxaparin, and patients who receive inadequate enoxaparin prophylaxis are significantly more likely to have downstream venous thromboembolism events. Individualization of enoxaparin prophylaxis may minimize perioperative venous thromboembolism risk and further improve patient safety after plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Therapeutic, II.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles