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Only a few studies investigating the optimal time point at which to start orthotic treatment for deformational plagiocephaly take into account the severity of skull asymmetry. The present study performs a three-dimensional analysis of the effects of age and severity of asymmetry on the final outcome.A total of 144 patients with deformational plagiocephaly treated by molding orthosis were examined and divided into three age groups (group I, <24 weeks; group II, ≥24 to <32 weeks; and group III, ≥32 weeks) and two severity levels (mild to moderate, 30-degree cranial vault asymmetry ≥3 mm to ≤12 mm; and moderate to severe, 30-degree cranial vault asymmetry >12 mm). The extent of the reduction of asymmetry was analyzed using three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry.Therapy with molding orthosis led to a significant reduction in asymmetry in all defined age groups. Efficacy of reduction decreased with increasing age. Successful treatment (cranial vault asymmetry index <3.5 percent) was achieved in 83, 69, and 40 percent of patients with mild to moderate asymmetry in groups I, II, and III, respectively; and in 50, 30, and 7 percent of patients with moderate to severe asymmetry in groups I, II, and III, respectively. The average duration of treatment increased from 18.6 weeks to 25.3 weeks (age groups I and III).Age at the beginning of treatment and severity of asymmetry have a definite impact on the duration and effectiveness of molding orthosis therapy.Risk, II.