Indocyanine Green Angiography Use in Breast Reconstruction: A National Analysis of Outcomes and Cost in 110,320 Patients

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Background:Indocyanine green angiography has gained popularity in breast reconstruction for its ability to assess mastectomy skin and tissue flap viability. The authors aim to analyze trends and outcomes associated with indocyanine green angiography use in breast reconstruction.Methods:Using 2012 to 2014 data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the authors identified breast reconstructions performed with or without indocyanine green angiography use. Trends over time were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Outcomes were assessed using logistic regression and generalized linear modeling.Results:Over the study period, 110,320 patients underwent breast reconstruction: 107,005 (97.0 percent) without and 3315 (3.0 percent) with indocyanine green angiography use. Usage increased over time: 750 patients (1.9 percent) in 2012, increasing to 1275 patients (3.7 percent) in 2013 (p < 0.001). Smokers (p = 0.018), hypertensive patients (p = 0.046), obese patients (p < 0.001), and those with a higher comorbidity index (p < 0.001) were more likely to undergo indocyanine green angiography. Autologous reconstruction was more frequently combined with its use compared with tissue expander reconstruction (4.5 percent versus 2.1 percent; p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the odds of débridement associated with its use (OR, 1.404; p < 0.001; 95 percent CI, 1.201 to 1.640).Conclusions:Indocyanine green angiography use in breast reconstruction has increased in recent years and is associated with higher débridement rates. These rates may indicate changing trends for clinicians when deciding whether to débride tissue during breast reconstruction.CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic, III.

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