Therapeutic Effects of Human Adipose-Derived Products on Impaired Wound Healing in Irradiated Tissue

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Abstract

Background:

Clinical sequelae of irradiation result in tissue devitalization (e.g., ischemia, fibrosis, and atrophy) where wound healing capacity is impaired. Fat-derived products may work to treat such pathology.

Methods:

Nonlethal irradiation at various doses (5, 10, and 15 Gy) and frequencies (one to three times on sequential days) was delivered to dorsal skin of nude mice, and subsequent gross and microscopic changes were evaluated for up to 4 weeks. Cutaneous punch wounds were then created to compare wound healing in irradiated and nonirradiated states. Wounds were also locally injected with vehicle, cultured adipose-derived stem cells, centrifuged fat tissue, or micronized cellular adipose matrix, and the therapeutic impact was monitored for up to 15 days.

Results:

Nude mice given total doses greater than 15 Gy spontaneously developed skin ulcers, and radiation damage was dose-dependent; however, a fractionated irradiation protocol was able to reduce the damage. Histologic assessment revealed dose-dependent dermal fibrosis/thickening and subcutaneous atrophy. Dose-dependent (5 to 15 Gy) impairment of wound healing was also evident. At the highest dosage (15 Gy three times), open wounds persisted on day 15. However, wounds injected with cultured adipose-derived stem cells were nearly healed on day 12, and those treated with injection of centrifuged fat or micronized tissue healed faster than untreated controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant differences between treated groups.

Conclusions:

Tissue devitalization by irradiation was dose-dependent, although fractionated protocols helped to reduce it. Adipose-derived stem cells and other fat-derived products harboring adipose-derived stem cells successfully revitalized irradiated tissues and accelerated wound healing.

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