Functional Outcomes of Late Posttraumatic Enophthalmos Correction

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Abstract

Background:

Posttraumatic enophthalmos has debilitating functional consequences, resulting in restriction of ocular motility and diplopia. Surgical correction aims to restore the globe position and ultimately improve function. This study evaluates the functional outcome of posttraumatic enophthalmos repair.

Methods:

Patients included in this study had posttraumatic enophthalmos and diplopia requiring enophthalmos repair. Diplopia was graded from 0 (no diplopia) to 4 (constant diplopia) based on the Functional Diplopia Grading Scale. Limitations of eye movements were recorded in the vertical, horizontal, and torsional directions. Data were gathered prospectively at preoperative assessment, postenophthalmos repair, and final follow-up.

Results:

Between 2002 and 2014, 41 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Substantial functional improvement, defined as a decrease of greater than or equal to 1 grade of diplopia, was achieved in 65.9 percent of patients (27 of 41) after all surgical interventions. Patients with residual diplopia (34 of 41) after enophthalmos surgery were managed with secondary strabismus surgery (10 of 34) and/or prism glasses (four of 34). After all interventions, vertical restrictions improved from −1.95 ± 1.13 to −1.06 ± 0.98. Horizontal restrictions improved from −0.88 ± 0.62 to 0.59 ± 0.6. Adequate clinical correction of enophthalmos to within 2 mm of the contralateral globe was achieved in 37 of 41.

Conclusions:

This is the largest case series evaluating functional outcomes of patients undergoing posttraumatic delayed enophthalmos repair. A multidisciplinary care approach resulted in improved globe position and eye movement, and improvement of diplopia. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better understand and treat this important and challenging problem.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Therapeutic, IV.

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