In the field of hernia surgery, there have been many advances in techniques that have provided the surgeon with a variety of options to repair the difficult abdominal wall hernia. Regardless of the technique, the ultimate goal was to provide a tension-free repair, which attempts to approximate the midline while returning abdominal wall musculature to its normal anatomic position, thus providing the patient with both a cosmetic and durable result with or without the use of a prosthetic reinforcement. Component separation techniques have been widely popularized as techniques to repair complex hernias and are frequently categorized based upon the anatomic location of the myofascial release. CSTs are generally categorized as either an anterior component separation or posterior component separation based upon the surgical approach to the abdominal wall musculature. This report objectively outlines the various techniques of component separation and specifically compares the outcomes among techniques to facilitate decision making in abdominal wall reconstruction.