Binder phenotype: clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the so-called Binder maxillonasal dysplasia in prenatally diagnosed cases, and review of the literature

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ObjectivePrenatal Binder profile is a well known clinical phenotype, defined by a flat profile without nasal eminence, contrasting with nasal bones of normal length. Binder profile results of a hypoplasia of the nasal pyramid (sometimes referred to as maxillonasal dysplasia). We report 8 fetuses prenatally diagnosed as Binder phenotype, and discuss their postnatal diagnoses.MethodsUltrasonographic detailed measurements in 2D and 3D were done on the 8 fetuses with Binder profile, and were compared with postnatal phenotype.ResultsAll fetuses have an association of verticalized nasal bones, abnormal convexity of the maxilla, and some degree of chondrodysplasia punctata. The final diagnoses included fetal warfarin syndrome (one patient), infantile sialic acid storage (one patient), probable Keutel syndrome (one patient), and five unclassifiable types of chondrodysplasia punctata.ConclusionThis series demonstrates the heterogeneity of prenatally diagnosed Binder phenotype, and the presence of chondrodysplasia punctata in all cases. An anomaly of vitamin K metabolism, possibly due to environmental factors, is suspected in these mild chondrodysplasia punctata. We recommend considering early prophylactic vitamin K supplementation in every suspected acquired vitamin K deficiency including incoercible vomiting of the pregnancy.

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