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In this article, we review the virology, pathology, epidemiology and clinical spectrum of intrauterine human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection, including intrauterine fetal death, non-immune hydrops fetalis, thrombocytopenia and neurological manifestations such as pediatric stroke and perivascular calcifications. In addition, we discuss the new insights into the neurodevelopmental outcome of intrauterine B19V infection. Current diagnosis and management of B19V infection is summarized, including a diagnostic and follow-up flowchart for practical clinical use. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.