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To evaluate the influence of congenital heart disease (CHD) or congestive heart failure (CHF) on fetal urine production rate (UPR) and to establish normal reference intervals.A cross-sectional study was performed on normal fetuses (n = 314) and on fetuses with CHD (n = 49). CHD cases were divided into groups on the basis of heart function as defined by Huhta score: with CHF (n = 11) and without CHF (n = 38). Fetal bladder volume was measured by two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional ultrasound with the Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis technique.In normal fetuses, UPR increased with gestational age from a mean value of 4.5 mL/h at 21 weeks to 66.5 mL/h at 40 weeks. There were no significant differences in UPR between CHD cases without CHF and controls (P = 0.581). However, fetuses with CHF had decreased UPR values (Controls vs. CHF, P = 0.007) compared with the controls. The interobserver and intraobserver variability for assessment of UPR was better using three-dimensional rather than two-dimensional US.Fetal UPR can be reproducibly measured by the Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis technique. It appears that heart function, rather than CHD, affects fetal UPR. Fetal UPR may therefore be an additional indicator of CHF. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.