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This study aimed to determine if liveborn children with prenatally detected de novo apparently balanced chromosome rearrangements (ABCR) have more long-term health, developmental or behavioural concerns compared with children in a normal Australian population.This was a retrospective ascertainment of all liveborn children with prenatally detected de novo ABCRs in two Australian states over a 10-year period (1994–2003). Child health, development and behaviour were assessed by maternal report using standardised measures; educational ability and achievement were measured by direct child assessment. Data were compared with relevant population norms, and one sample t-test performed to test for statistical differences.Of 39 eligible cases, 16 (41%) participated in the study. One child (6%) was born with a congenital anomaly, and two children (12.5%) reported a chronic health concern. Compared with population norms, no significant differences were observed with respect to intelligence, mental health, child development and educational ability; children had significantly higher scores indicative of better functioning on bodily pain, social–emotional behaviour and physical functioning. No child satisfied the criteria for having a special health care need.Children in this study with a prenatally detected de novo ABCR have similar long-term health, developmental and behavioural outcomes compared with population norms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.