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The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ultrasound (US) in the prenatal diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic masses, correlated with the postnatal diagnosis.In this retrospective, observational study, prenatal MRI and US diagnoses were compared with postnatal diagnoses. MRI was performed in 56 fetuses with intra-abdominal cyst diagnosed by US between 2004 and 2013. Final diagnosis, revealed by postnatal evaluation, was obtained for 49 of them and was taken as the reference. MRI was evaluated as superior, equal, or inferior to US.An accurate diagnosis was provided by US in 25 cases (51%) and by MRI in 36 out of the 49 cases (73.4%). MRI corrected the US diagnosis in 13 cases (26.5%) by providing a more precise localization or additional etiologic information. In two cases (4%), MRI wrongly changed the diagnosis correctly made by US.Prenatal MRI better characterized the nature of abdominal cystic lesions previously diagnosed by US in 13 cases. This enhanced postnatal therapeutic planning and so improved parental counseling and pregnancy management.