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This study aimed to investigate the value of echocardiography and Doppler before fetoscopic laser coagulation for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in the prediction of intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare preoperative parameters between fetuses with and without demise after laser surgery. Eighteen studies were included. Recipient twins have an increased risk of demise in case of preoperative absent/reversed flow (A/REDF) in the umbilical artery (odds ratio [OR] 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-4.28), absent or reversed a-wave in the ductus venosus (OR 2.32, 95% CI, 1.70-3.16), or a middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity > 1.5 multiples of the median (MoM) (OR 7.59, 95% CI, 2.56-22.46). In donors, only A/REDF in the umbilical artery (OR 3.40, 95% CI, 2.68-4.32) and absent or reversed a-wave in the ductus venosus (OR 1.66, 95% CI, 1.12-2.47) were associated with IUFD. No association was found between donor-IUFD and preoperative myocardial performance index (MPI). Two studies found an association between abnormal MPI and recipient demise. With this study, we have identified a set of preoperative Doppler parameters predictive of fetal demise after laser surgery. More research is needed to assess the utility of preoperative echocardiographic parameters such as the MPI in predicting IUFD.What’s already known about this topic?Doppler parameters are associated with fetal demise after laser surgery.Echocardiographic parameters are currently not used in risk stratification.What does this study add?A more extensive set of preoperative Doppler parameters is defined to predict post-laser fetal demise.The utility of preoperative echocardiographic parameters such as the MPI in predicting fetal demise remains unclear.