Influence of Skin Irritants on Percutaneous Absorption

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The effects of the application of skin irritants on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of three model compounds of diverse physico-chemical properties, caffeine, indomethacin, and hydrocortisone, were investigated. Norephedrine and imipramine, basic drugs with a known skin irritation potential, were employed to damage the skin. Treatment with norephedrine increased the permeation of caffeine and hydrocortisone by two- to fourfold, while absorption of indomethacin declined an order of magnitude. A similar result was obtained for the effect of treatment with imipramine on transport of caffeine. Pretreatment with imipramine promoted hydrocortisone absorption 10-fold but, unlike norephedrine, did not alter indomethacin permeation. While both treatments in vivo caused an increase (norephedrine > imipramine) in the pH on the surface of skin and after tape-stripping the skin, only norephedrine caused changes in transepidermal water loss in vivo in man. Since imipramine was the more severe irritant as judged by erythema, alterations by irritants of barrier function appeared rather complex.

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