Genetic polymorphism of drug metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 (CYP), is an important cause of adverse drug reactions. Multiple gene mutations in CYP have been shown to be phenotype. The occurrence of genetic polymorphism has been seen in genes for CYP1A1, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A5. This review discusses the molecular mechanism of two genetic polymorphisms, debrisoquine/sparteine (CYP2D6) coumarin (CYP2A6) polymorphisms. In addition, elucidation of gene mutations of CYP2D6 and CYP2A6 in Japanese will be discussed.