Protein Deposition from Dry Powder Inhalers: Fine Particle Multiplets as Performance Modifiers

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To evaluate the use of carrier-based dry powder aerosols for inhalation delivery of proteins and examine the effect of fine particle excipients as potential formulation performance modifiers.


Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was co-processed with malto-dextrin by spray-drying to produce model protein particles. Aerosol formulations were prepared by tumble mixing protein powders with α-lactose monohydrate (63−90 μm) or modified lactoses containing between 2.5 and 10% w/w fine particle lactose (FPL) or micronised polyethylene glycol 6000. Powder blends were characterised in terms of particle size distribution, morphology and powder flow. Formulation performance in Diskhaler® and Rotahaler® devices was investigated using a twin stage impinger operating at 60 1 min−1.


Inhalation performance of binary ordered mixes prepared using BSA-maltodextrin and lactose (63−90 μm) was improved by addition of FPL and micronised PEG 6000. For the addition of 5% w/w FPL the protein fine particle fraction (0.5−6.4 μm) using the Diskhaler® was increased from 31.7 ± 2.4% to 47.4 ± 2.2%. Inclusion of FPL and micronised PEG 6000 changed the bulk properties of inhalation powders and reduced powder flow but did not affect device emptying. Unexpectedly, improvements in performance were found to be independent of the order of addition of FPL to the ternary powder formulations. SEM studies revealed that this was probably the result of a redistribution of protein particles between the coarse carrier lactose component and added FPL during mixing.


Fine particle excipients can be used to improve the performance of carrier-based protein dry powder aerosols. Mechanistically, enhancement of performance is proposed to result from a redistribution of protein particles from coarse carrier particles to the fine particle component in the ternary mix.

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