Quantitative Determination of the Extent of Neutralization of Carboxylic Acid Functionality in Carbopol® 974P NF by Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry Using Kubelka-Munk Function

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical method for the quantitative determination of the extent of neutralization of the carboxylic acid function in Carbopol® 974P NF using Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT) with Kubelka-Munk function analysis.

Methods

Carbopol® 974P NF is a high molecular weight, chemically crosslinked polymer of acrylic acid, that has the C=O stretching band of the unionized carboxylic acid function at 1695 cm−1. The quantitative determination of the extent of neutralization of the carboxylic acid function in Carbopol® 974P NF is based upon the asymmetrical C =O stretching of the carboxylate anion at 1570 cm−1 measured by DRIFT Spectroscopy.

Results

To overcome spectral differences arising from sample preparation (powders, granules and tablets) and in an effort to increase the precision of the analytical method, the following approaches were used: (1) an internal standard, (2) first derivative of the spectrum to eliminate the effect of baseline drift and (3) the ratio of the first derivative of the C=O stretch of the carboxylate anion peak (1570 cm−1) in the neutralized Carbopol® 974P NF to that of the peak of the internal standard (866 cm−1). The above data treatment techniques proved to be superior to the usual methods of peak height or peak area. The calibration curve of the ratio of the first derivative (1570 cm−1/866 cm−1) was a linear function of the mass of sodium carboxylate over the range from 0.0% to 100.0% neutralization of the carboxylic acid function in Carbopol® 974P NF (Fig. la). No particle size or sample preparation effects were noted within the experimental error.

Conclusions

DRIFT Spectroscopy using the Kubelka-Munk function is a powerful tool for the routine determination of the extent of neutralization of the carboxylic acid function in Carbopol® 974P NF in complex pharmaceutical formulations.

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