To describe the pharmacodynamic effects of recombinant human interleukin-21 (IL-21) on core body temperature in cynomolgus monkeys using basic mechanisms of heat regulation. A major effort was devoted to compare the use of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modelling.Methods
A temperature model was formulated including circadian rhythm, metabolism, heat loss, and a thermoregulatory set-point. This model was formulated as a mixed-effects model based on SDEs using NONMEM.Results
The effects of IL-21 were on the set-point and the circadian rhythm of metabolism. The model was able to describe a complex set of IL-21 induced phenomena, including 1) disappearance of the circadian rhythm, 2) no effect after first dose, and 3) high variability after second dose. SDEs provided a more realistic description with improved simulation properties, and further changed the model into one that could not be falsified by the autocorrelation function.Conclusions
The IL-21 induced effects on thermoregulation in cynomolgus monkeys are explained by a biologically plausible model. The quality of the model was improved by the use of SDEs.