Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in apical ballooning syndrome (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy)

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Patients with apical ballooning syndrome may develop dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction due to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leaflet and secondary functional mitral regurgitation, causing decreased cardiac output and hypotension. If suspected, bedside echocardiography will quickly confirm this complication. Positive inotropic/chronotropic agents should be avoided as they may exacerbate outflow tract obstruction, resulting in further hemodynamic compromise.

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