Brain perfusion evaluated by regional tissue oxygenation as a possible quality indicator of ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental porcine cardiac arrest study

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Abstract

Introduction:

Relationship between regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) and microcirculatory changes during cardiac arrest (CA) are still unclear. Therefore, we designed an experimental study to correlate rSO2, microcirculation and systemic hemodynamic parameters in a porcine model of CA.

Methods:

Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 24 female pigs (50±3kg) and left for three minutes untreated followed by five minutes of mechanical CPR. Regional and peripheral saturations were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, sublingual microcirculation by Sidestream Dark Field technology and continuous hemodynamic parameters, including systemic blood pressure (MAP) and carotid blood flow (CF), during baseline, CA and CPR periods. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test, the Friedman test and the partial correlation method were used to compare these parameters.

Results:

Brain and peripheral rSO2 showed a gradual decrease during CA and only an increase of brain rSO2 during mechanical CPR (34.5 to 42.5; p=0.0001), reflected by a rapid decrease of microcirculatory and hemodynamic parameters during CA and a slight increase during CPR. Peripheral rSO2 was not changed significantly during CPR (38 to 38.5; p=0.09). We only found a moderate correlation of cerebral/peripheral rSO2 to microcirculatory parameters (PVD: r=0.53/0.46; PPV: r=0.6/0.5 and MFI: r=0.64/0.52) and hemodynamic parameters (MAP: r=0.64/0.71 and CF: 0.71/0.67).

Conclusions:

Our experimental study confirmed that monitoring brain and peripheral rSO2 is an easy-to-use method, well reflecting the hemodynamics during CA. However, only brain rSO2 reflects the CPR efforts and might be used as a potential quality indicator for CPR.

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