Risk factors to predict leg ischemia in patients undergoing single femoral artery cannulation in minimally invasive cardiac surgery

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Background:In peripheral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass, there is always a risk of ischemia in the extremities, caused by femoral artery cannulation. This report aimed to evaluate the outcome and the risk factors in patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery in mitral valve surgery.Methods:We retrospectively reviewed all minimally invasive mitral valve surgery at our institute from May 2014 to December 2016. Operative outcomes and intra-operative monitoring for distal leg saturation were measured by the near-infrared spectroscopy values. For post-operative outcomes, the creatinine phosphorus kinase level was measured for the assessment of leg ischemia. Risk factors were evaluated for the elevation of post-operative creatinine phosphorus kinase.Results:There were 162 patients who underwent single femoral artery cannulation for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. The mean operation, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp time were 212±44, 124±30, 76.6±22 minutes (min), respectively. The factors related to increased creatinine phosphorus kinase were male, body mass index, larger cannula size, operation time, cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time. The measurement of minimum near-infrared spectroscopy values did not show any association with creatinine phosphorus kinase elevation. There were significant associations between body mass index, cannula size and operation time and post-operative creatinine phosphorus kinase increase by multiple regression analysis. Two male patients had extremely high post-operative creatinine phosphorus kinase (18188 U/L and 16831 U/L) and they had high body mass index, large cannula size and longer operation time.Conclusions:In peripheral cannulation for minimally invasive cardiac surgery, body mass index, cannula size and operation time can be considered as risk factors for leg ischemia.

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