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Detailed analysis of proteome is crucial to understand the problem of aging and neurodegeneration.Proteome imbalance can lead to widespread aberrant protein aggregation and decline proteostasis.Systematic understanding of proteostasis can open opportunities and may diminish challenges of misfolded proteins accumulation.Natural and pharmaceutical compounds: A promising approach to repair compromised cellular proteostasis.Proteins are ordered useful cellular entities, required for normal health and organism's survival. The proteome is the absolute set of cellular expressed proteins, which regulates a wide range of physiological functions linked with all domains of life. In aging cells or under unfavorable cellular conditions, misfolding of proteins generates common pathological events linked with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Current advances of proteome studies systematically generates some progress in our knowledge that how misfolding of proteins or their accumulation can contribute to the impairment or depletion of proteome functions. Still, the underlying causes of this unrecoverable loss are not clear that how such unsolved transitions give rise to multifactorial challengeable degenerative pathological conditions in neurodegeneration. In this review, we specifically focus and systematically summarize various molecular mechanisms of proteostasis maintenance, as well as discuss progressing neurobiological strategies, promising natural and pharmacological candidates, which can be useful to counteract the problem of proteopathies. Our article emphasizes an urgent need that now it is important for us to recognize the fundamentals of proteostasis to design a new molecular framework and fruitful strategies to uncover how the proteome defects are associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. A enhance understanding of progress link with proteome and neurobiological challenges may provide new basic concepts in the near future, based on pharmacological agents, linked with impaired proteostasis and neurodegenerative diseases.