Medicare/Medicaid billing fraud and abuse can be prosecuted under a wider array of laws than apply within the private sector. Cases are typically initiated by whistleblowers or through detection of unusual billing patterns. Few psychologists in independent practice have ever been convicted of Medicare/Medicaid billing fraud or abuse, but government antifraud efforts against psychologists appear to be on the rise. These efforts are pursued under the auspices of containing spiraling health care costs, but they can uncover unintentional billing abuse by psychologists, arising from general ignorance of claim-processing procedures, lack of uniformity across insurance programs, constantly changing guidelines, and ambiguous interpretations. Recent investigations in south Texas have especially targeted the use of extenders for psychological and neuropsychological testing.