Recent studies show that microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, may have potential for monitoring cancer status. We investigated circulating miRNAs in prostate cancer that may be associated with the progression of hormone-sensitive primary tumors to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after androgen deprivation therapy.METHODS.
Using genome-wide expression profiling by TaqMan Human MicroRNA Arrays (Applied Biosystems) and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we compared the expression levels of miRNAs in serum samples from 28 patients of low-risk localized disease, 30 of high-risk localized disease and 26 of metastatic CRPC.RESULTS.
We demonstrated that serum samples from patients of low risk, localized prostate cancer and metastatic CRPC patients exhibit distinct circulating miRNA signatures. MiR-375, miR-378*, and miR-141 were significantly over-expressed in serum from CRPC patients compared with serum from low-risk localized patients, while miR-409–3p was significantly under-expressed. In prostate primary tumor samples, miR-375 and miR-141 also had significantly higher expression levels compared with those in normal prostate tissue.CONCLUSIONS.
Circulating miRNAs, particularly miR-375, miR-141, miR-378*, and miR-409–3p, are differentially expressed in serum samples from prostate cancer patients. In the search for improved minimally invasive methods to follow cancer pathogenesis, the correlation of disease status with the expression patterns of circulating miRNAs may indicate the potential importance of circulating miRNAs as prognostic markers for prostate cancer progression. Prostate 73: 346–354, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.