Rapid increase in multidrug-resistant enteric bacilli blood stream infection after prostate biopsy—A 10-year population-based cohort study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND.

Bloodstream infection following a transrectal prostate biopsy is a well-known and feared complication. Previous studies have shown an increase in multi-resistant bacterial infections as a consequence of higher usage of antibiotics in investigated populations. Our aim was to analyze bacterial resistance patterns in positive blood cultures, after prostate biopsies in Stockholm, Sweden, where the use of antibiotics has been low and decreasing during the last 10 years.

METHODS.

From the three pathology laboratories in Stockholm, reports of prostate examinations were retrieved (n = 56,076) from 2003 to 2012. By linking men to the National Patient Register all but prostate core biopsies were excluded (n = 12,024). Prostate biopsies in men younger than 30 years of age were excluded (n = 5) leaving 44,047 biopsies for analysis. From laboratory information systems data regarding blood cultures were retrieved. Proportions of blood cultures within 30 days by year were calculated. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs.

RESULTS.

In total, 44,047 prostate biopsies were performed in 32,916 men over 10 years. On 620 occasions a blood culture was drawn within 30 days of the biopsy; 266 of these were positive. The proportions with positive blood cultures in 2003 and 2012 were 0.38 and 1.14%, respectively. The proportion of multidrug-resistant bacteria increased significantly during the study. In the crude and the adjusted analysis, the year of biopsy and Charlson Comorbidity Index were associated with the risk of having a positive blood culture.

CONCLUSION.

Multidrug-resistant enteric bacilli are becoming a problem in Sweden, despite low antimicrobial use. Men need to be informed about the increasing risks of infectious complications of transrectal prostate biopsy. One out of 50 men undergoing a prostate biopsy will develop symptoms suggestive of a bloodstream infection after the biopsy and one in 100 men will have a positive blood culture. Prostate 75:947–956, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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