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There is no instrument available in Chinese for assessing psychosocial needs. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Supportive Care Needs Survey short form (SCNS-SF34-C) in Chinese women with breast cancer (BC).The Chinese version of the 34-item SCNS-SF34-C, a self-report measure for assessing psychosocial unmet needs, was administered to 348 Chinese women with BC at the outpatient oncology unit. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) tested the factor structure. The internal consistency, convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity of the identified factor structure were assessed.In contrast to the five-factor structure identified in the original 34-item SCNS-SF34, our EFA produced a 33-item solution accounting for 54% of score variance comprising four-factors: (1) Health system, information, and patient support, (2) Psychological needs, (3) Physical and daily living, and (4) Sexuality needs. Separate dimensions for Health system and information, and the Patient care and support domains were not supported. Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.75 to 0.92. Correlations of psychological and physical symptom distress measures indicated acceptable convergent validity. No correlation with optimism and positive affect measures indicated divergent validity. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by effective differentiation between clinically distinct patient groups (no active treatment versus active treatment; advanced BC versus localized BC).The Chinese version of the Supportive Care Needs Survey has suitable factor structure and psychometric properties for use in assessing psychosocial needs among Chinese women with BC. Further validation is needed for other cancer types. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.