Racial and Ethnic Differences in Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms: Are They Consistent Over Time?

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Abstract

Background

Prior research indicates that blacks and Hispanics/Latinos have flatter diurnal cortisol declines across the day, a profile associated with poorer health. The stability of racial and ethnic differences in cortisol levels over time is not well understood, and additional research is needed to establish racial and ethnic differences in psychosocial stress levels as related to changes in cortisol levels.

Methods

With data from a community-based study of 152 adults (mean age = 58 years; 53% women; 34% black, 26% Hispanic/Latino), we examined the magnitude of racial and ethnic differences over a 5-year period. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained 3 times per day for 3 days in Years 1, 3, 4, and 5. Life events and chronic stress were assessed by questionnaires in which participants reported on whether they had experienced specific types of events or stress within the past year. Depressive symptoms scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale) were also administered annually. Daily cortisol slopes were calculated by subtracting wakeup cortisol from bedtime levels and dividing by hours awake.

Results

Increases in psychosocial stress were associated with flatter cortisol slopes among blacks (β = 0.010) and Hispanics/Latinos (β = 0.014), although including cardiovascular disease risk factors attenuates associations in blacks (β = 0.007; p = .125). Higher income predicts a steepening of cortisol rhythms across the study (β = −0.003; p = .019).

Conclusions

Racial and ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms are stable over time. However, the magnitude of changes in cortisol levels associated with chronic stress levels may vary by racial and ethnic subgroups.

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