The Association Between Older Israelis’ Quality of Relationships With Their Family and Migrant Live-in Caregivers and Their Loneliness

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(a) To assess the extent to which there are ambivalent dyadic relationships between older care recipients and their primary family caregivers (PFCs) and migrant care workers (MCWs) and (b) to examine the extent to which ambivalence explains loneliness among the care recipients.


A sample of 279 triads of respondents (care recipients, their PFCs, and their MCWs) was used and interviewed face-to-face. The Dyadic Relationship Scale was used to assess quality of relationships and ambivalence. The de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was used to assess loneliness.


Mean scores for dyadic ambivalence between the care recipients and both types of caregivers were moderate. Lower levels of ambivalence in dyadic relationships with PFCs were associated with decreased loneliness. Ambivalent dyadic relationships explained 6% of the variance in loneliness.


Some degree of ambivalent relationship exists between care recipients and both types of caregivers. The vigor of ambivalence was significantly associated with the level of loneliness reported by functionally disabled older adults.

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