|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
It is known that autonomic nervous activities change in correspondence with sleep stages. However, the characteristics of continuous fluctuations in nocturnal autonomic nerve tone have not been clarified in detail. The study aimed to determine the possible correlation between the electroencephalogram (EEG) and autonomic nervous activities, and to clarify in detail the nocturnal fluctuations in autonomic nerve activities. Overnight EEGs and electrocardiograms of seven healthy males were obtained. These EEGs were analyzed by fast Fourier transformation algorithm to extract delta, sigma and beta power. Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were calculated in consecutive 5-min epochs. The HRV indices of low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and LF/HF ratio were calculated from the spectral analysis of R-R intervals. The sleep stages were manually scored according to Rechtschaffen and Kales' criteria. Low frequency and LF/HF were significantly lower during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) than REM, and were lower in stages 3 and 4 than in stages 1 and 2. Furthermore, delta EEG showed inverse correlations with LF (r = − 0.44, P < 0.001) and LF/HF (r = − 0.41, P < 0.001). In contrast, HF differed neither between REM and NREM nor among NREM sleep stages. Detailed analysis revealed that correlation was evident from the first to third NREM, but not in the fourth and fifth NREM. Delta EEG power showed negative correlations with LF and LF/HF, suggesting that sympathetic nervous activities continuously fluctuate in accordance with sleep deepening and lightening.