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A critical review is presented of experimental investigations of electromyo-graphic (EMG) biofeedback with the upper extremity with physically disabled individuals as subjects. These studies are viewed as bridging the gap between basic research and clinical applications. Thus they provide a foundation for biofeedback treatment in rehabilitation. Studies on increasing and decreasing muscle activity are examined as well as comparisons of EMG biofeedback with physical therapy and assessment. A number of conclusions based upon the reports are drawn, and suggestions are offered for further work in the area.