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This study examined which admission and treatment change variables predicted return to work in a population of patients with work-related LBP. Pain and disability perception, coping strategies, depression, and functional status were examined at admission and discharge in a sample of 117 injured male workers who participated in an interdisciplinary rehabilitation program. Discriminant function analyses, using employment status 9 months later as the dependent variable resulted in correct classification rates of 79%, using admission and treatment change scores as predictors. Psychological factors at admission were the salient variables that emerged in the prediction of employment outcome at follow-up. Of the treatment change variables, physical status and one's perception of his/her disability significantly predicted return to work. Results of this study may be beneficial in optimizing the allocation of scarce health-care resources.