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Objective: To assess the relationship between behavioral self-regulation and functional status among older rehabilitation inpatients. Study Design: Prospective outcome study. Setting: Fourteen inpatient rehabilitation units and skilled nursing facilities. Participants: Two hundred twelve older adults following hip fracture or replacement. Measures: Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale, Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS), and nurse-rated functioning on activities of daily living (ADLs) and the Barthel Index. Results: Risk-adjusted analyses found the BDS to be strongly associated with all 11 ADLs and the Barthel Index. The MMSE made an additional contribution to 4 models. Conclusion: The results suggest that the ability to use intentions to guide purposeful behavior is an important contributor to functioning among older adults, affecting rehabilitation potential.