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To describe depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and posttraumatic growth at 6 and 12 months following amputation and to explore differences by demographic variables and cognitive processing of trauma.83 adults with newly acquired limb loss.Two large metropolitan hospitals.The Patient Health Questionnaire depression module, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory.Significant depressive and PTSD symptoms were reported by 15%–25% of participants. Relatively low levels of posttraumatic growth were reported. Negative cognitive processing predicted depressive and PTSD symptoms at 6 months. Positive cognitive processing predicted posttraumatic growth at 12 months.Cognitive processing appears to be integral to positive and negative psychosocial outcomes following amputation and should be targeted by clinical interventions.