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A combined model of chemical dependency and psychoanalytic approaches in the psychotherapeutic treatment of alcoholics and drug abusers is advocated, developed, and described. The ambiguity of treatment goals and impediments and enhancements inherent in private practice with this population are discussed. Modifications in treatment are recommended on the basis of contributions from the addictions field, the self-help movement, and etiologic research. The broadening scope of psychoanalytic theory and practice with greater applicability to the treatment of addiction is reviewed. Clinical material is used to illustrate psychoanalytic principles and the combined model of psychotherapy with alcoholics and drug abusers.