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The effectiveness of a psychoeducational treatment program for reducing high-risk human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission behaviors was compared with an information only group evaluated in a sample of 127 inpatients on a drug abuse treatment unit. Both treatments were effective in increasing factual knowledge about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, proficiency at demonstrating correct procedures for needle cleaning and condom use, and perceived susceptibility to and response efficacy for avoiding HIV infection. At posttreatment, subjects in the psychoeducation condition obtained higher scores on the condom demonstration test, however, at 1-month follow-up, the performance of both groups on this test was equivalent. In terms of HIV knowledge, the psychoeducation group was superior at follow-up but not at posttreatment.