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The revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to 1,290 intravenous (IV) drug users who were not currently enrolled in a treatment program. A principalcomponents analysis indicated that the cognitive-affective and somatic-performance components found in psychiatric patients were also present in IV drug users, and subscales based on the compositions of these 2 components were derived. The correlations of the BDI total and 2 subscale scores with 25 of the IV drug users' background characteristics were calculated, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to identify the most meaningful correlates. Self-reported poor health was the most important correlate. The usefulness of the BDI for measuring self-reported depression in IV drug users who are not in treatment is discussed.