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This study examined the concept of masculine gender role stress (MGRS; i.e., the case in which a man feels unable to live up to male role expectations or is requested to engage in nonmale activities) in an inpatient sample of alcohol abusers. MGRS is an important concept because it may exacerbate treatment defensiveness and encourage alcohol use as a coping strategy and it is associated with poor health habits. A questionnaire measure of MGRS previously developed from a nonclinical sample was used to identify 4 highly correlated but internally consistent scale factors: inadequate performance, sexual inadequacy, engaging in traditionally feminine behavior, and job inadequacy. Stress regarding inadequate job performance decreased with age and was lower in widowed men than in separated or divorced men. High-MGRS Ss generally scored higher on measures of alcohol abuse than did low-MGRS Ss.