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Community outreach and AIDS intervention services were provided to 1,080 out-of-treatment injecting drug users (IDUs) in 5 cities. Using random assignments to experimental conditions representing alternative intervention strategies, drug use and sex risks were measured at intake as well as 1 and 6 months later. Interventions resulted in significant behavioral risk reductions from intake to follow-up, but outcomes were unrelated to the completion of an interview on behavioral risk assessment at intake and to the intervention procedure IDUs received. Risk reduction measures 6 months after intake were unrelated to the receipt of a follow-up at Month 1. Intervention procedures and components of these community-based AIDS prevention programs need to be reconsidered.