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A meeting sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse was held to conduct an organizational analysis of research efforts in HIV prevention among those at risk through drug abuse. The analysis focused on enhancing research collaboration to facilitate innovative studies. Findings clarified how organizational cultures support academic or service values that influence the types of research accomplished. The impacts of organizational missions, structure, leadership, and reward systems on researchers' willingness and abilities to collaborate were also addressed. Understanding these themes should better enable researchers in various sites to develop and pursue collaborative efforts.