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The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory was administeredto 196 men and 113 women newly admitted to methadone maintenance. The distribution of participants among Axis I subtypes was noelevation (18.8%), drug–alcohol abuse only (25.2%), affective disturbance (31.7%), and psychoticsymptoms (17.2%); among Axis II subtypes it was no elevation (10.4%), narcissistic–antisocial (36.2%), dependent (16.2%), withdrawn–negativistic (12.6%), histrionic (7.4%), and severe personalitydisorder (8.4%). Women were more likely to be assigned tohistrionic, dependent, and severe personality disorder subtypes. Proportionately more Black participants were assigned todrug–alcohol only, psychotic symptoms, narcissistic–antisocial, and severe personality disordersubtypes. The proportion retained in treatment at 18 months washigher for withdrawn (.51) and histrionic (.33) than other Axis IIsubtypes (range = .13–.22).