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Consideration of religiosity as a factor in behavior change research requires a reliable measure of religious behavior. Such a measure may be particularly helpful in research on substance misuse given the negative association between religiosity and substance use and the role of religiosity and spirituality often reported in the process of recovery from substance use disorders. In this regard, this article describes the development and evaluation of the Religious Background and Behavior (RBB) questionnaire as a brief measure of religious practices. The results suggest the RBB is made up of two factors, labeled God Consciousness and Formal Practices, and that the RBB possesses excellent test–retest reliability and satisfactory internal consistency. It is concluded that the RBB can serve as a reliable instrument for assessing religious behaviors.