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Secondary analyses were conducted on data from 2pharmacotherapy trials for cocaine dependence inmethadone-maintained patients to explore factors potentiallyassociated with treatment readiness. One trial enrolled currentcocaine users, and the other enrolled newly abstinent patients. Newly abstinent patients showed evidence of treatment readiness inthat they submitted fewer cocaine-positive urine specimens duringthe trial and reported more aversion than craving in response tocues, greater self-efficacy in high-risk situations, greaterconfidence in treatment, and less depression. They identified lesswith an “addict” self-schema and were motivated to stop usingcocaine because of perceived consequences to health and freedom anda desire for self-control. The influence of treatment readiness inpharmacotherapy trials is discussed.