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Relatively few studies have examined the role of cognitive appraisal in the process of addictive relapse. This investigation was undertaken to develop a measure of primary appraisal in situations involving a high risk for cocaine relapse. The development and psychometric properties of the Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (RSAQ) are described. The RSAQ was administered to 114 adult cocaine abusers. Participants rated their appraisal of 2 hypothetical relapse risk situations. A principal-components analysis yielded a single component solution consisting of the same 26 items for the 2 situations, both involving high internal consistency. Analyses demonstrated construct, predictive, and discriminant validity. This study provides initial evidence for the psychometric validity of the RSAQ. Results support the role of primary appraisal of high-risk situations in the process of addictive relapse.