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Much of what is known about typical drug abuse treatment outcomes comes from a series of large-scale national prospective longitudinal treatment evaluation studies supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse over the past 3 decades. An overview of the historical context, research design, and findings from the Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP) and the Treatment Outcome Prospective Study (TOPS) is presented. The Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), a multisite cooperative agreement, is the latest and most advanced in this research designed to understand drug abuse treatment. DATOS investigators are conducting analyses in 4 thematic areas: health services research, retention and engagement in treatment, the life course of treated addicts, and policy-relevant treatment outcome studies.