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Program and client data from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) were used to examine program structural and treatment characteristics in 1991–1993. Similar data from the Treatment Outcome Prospective Study were used to compare the characteristics of DATOS programs with those in 1979–1981. Drug abuse treatment typically consisted of supportive therapy delivered primarily in groups, emphasizing abstinence from all illicit substances, including alcohol, buttressed by relapse prevention and urine monitoring during treatment. Secondary treatment emphases reflected each modality's unique orientations. Over the 2 eras, comprehensive services declined while many core elements of treatment strengthened, including client awareness of treatment plans and posttreatment involvement in 12-step groups. Some programs began to experience structural changes resulting from cost containment and managed care.