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A body of 2 complementary, albeit independent, research literatures has emerged that documents a strong relationship between substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in both community and clinical samples. Research on the concomitants and consequences of PTSD has found that substance abuse is a frequent comorbid problem among individuals diagnosed with PTSD. Researchers from the substance abuse field are now investigating the interrelationship between PTSD and SUDs and finding that PTSD has a notable effect on SUD course and treatment response. Here, a brief summary of the prevalence of SUD-PTSD comorbidity is provided and the 5 articles of the special section are introduced.