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The present study examined the short-term stability of personality trait scores from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO–PI–R) among 230 opioid-dependent outpatients. The NEO–PI–R is a 240-item empirically developed measure of the five-factor model of personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Participants completed the NEO–PI–R at admission and again approximately 19 weeks later. Results indicated fair to good stability for all NEO–PI–R factor domain scores, with coefficients ranging from .68 to .74. Stability of NEO–PI–R scores was decreased among potentially invalid response patterns but was not significantly affected by drug-positive versus drug-negative status at follow-up.